Bony Landmarks of the Foot with Bonnie Southgate

 In Foot

We’re back for our next instalment of Landmarks – This time we’re looking at the bony landmarks of the foot. For a lot of people, the bones in the foot can seem really daunting – it may feel like there’s too many bones to remember, but thankfully Bonnie is at hand to walk us through the basics!

Similarly to the knee, we feel that understanding the anatomy and biomechanics of the foot are of utmost importance. Recognising how they should work in relation to movement can be the difference between optimal and sub-optimal movement…and ultimately, cueing the correct movement can help our clients to move optimally without pain.

During the month of May, we’re looking solely at the foot, and the knee! Perfectly timed since our Knee and Foot courses are coming up over the next few months in our 3 separate locations…

In today’s instalment, Bonnie is demonstrating the bony landmarks of the foot. Once we know which bones are which and where they’re situated through palpation we can then look to explore their ligamentous and muscular attachments. Understanding this, can be really significant when observing movement, performing screens and treating your clients. If something isn’t moving correctly in the foot, chances are it’s going to have a knock-on effect up the chain.

At Pilates Therapy, we’re fanatic about movement and ensuring that the body is able to move correctly and optimally so if you’re looking to further help your clients then you’ve arrived at the right place!

Here is the full video, but for those of you who like to read, we’ve also outlined the landmarks covered so you can follow along too!

Let us know what you think – We love to hear feedback from all of our fellow Pilates trainers out there!


Bony Landmarks:

Medial Malleolus – The Medial Malleolus is part of the tibia bone. Found at the distal end of the tibia, this is a really easy landmark to palpate and it’s also worth noting that the medial malleolus has no muscular attachments!

Lateral Malleolus – As the name suggests, this malleolus can be found on the lateral side. It’s found on the distal end of the fibula and unlike it’s counterpart, the lateral malleolus is an attachment site for some really important ligaments that are involved in stabilising the ankle – More on that to follow!

Calcaneus – Also known as the heel bone, your calcaneus is really easy to palpate.

Cuboid – Lateral and anterior to the calcaneus is your cuboid bone – This forms a joint with the navicular and the cuneiforms. The cuboid has connections to both the 4th and the 5th metatarsals in comparison to the first, second and third metatarsals who each connect onto their own cuneiforms. All of the bones in the feet influence one another, but the 4th and the 5th are influenced by the cuboid bone. They work almost in opposition to the other 3 bones to help form the arch of the foot.

Fifth Metatarsal Head – This is the bony prominence on the lateral side of your foot and it’s a really important muscular attachment point.

Proximal, Medial and Distal Phalanges – On from your metatarsals are your phalanges. From the 2nd to the 5th toe you have 3 types of phalanges. The Proximal, then the Medial and right at the front are the Distal phalanges. Here’s a fun fact for you – The big toe (also known as your Halucis) only has 2 types of phalanges – Proximal and Distal. There are no Medial Phalanges in your Halucis

Cuneiforms – There are 3 cuneiforms – The Medial which meets with the 1st metatarsal, the Intermediate which meets with the 2nd metatarsal, and finally the lateral cuneiform which yes, you guessed it – Meets with the 3rd metatarsal bone.

Navicular – This bone has a prominence on the medial side which is easier to see on those who pronate. In pronation, this bone internally rotates and drops which is why you can see it easier on those in pronation.

Talus – This is a floating bone with ligamentous but no muscular attachments. It sits under your tibia and on top of your calcaneus. This bone is covered in cartilage and it allows the foot to smoothly dorsiflex and plantar flex. To palpate this bone, it’s best to lift your toes up in dorsiflexion – You should be able to see some tendinous protrusions. Taking your fingers either side of these  below the malleolus and then lowering the toes, you’ll be on the Heads of the Talus. The talus forms two key joints within the foot:

Talocrural Joint – This is the articulation between the Talus and the Tibia.

Subtalar Joint – The Subtalar is the articulation between the Talus and the Calcaneus.


And that concludes our exploration of the Landmarks of the Foot for today – We hope you’ve found this interesting! If you’re looking to learn more about the foot or knee, we have our courses coming up over 3 weekends in 3 separate locations which are:

18-19th May in London

8-9th June in Ferndown

16-17th August in Gatwick

For more information you can either click here, or to book onto the course, please feel free to email us at


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